Vaginal Bleeding stands for blood loss from vagina (including the vaginal wall) or uterus. To mark the beginning of new reproductive cycle; normal vaginal bleeding (menstruation) takes place between, every, 21 and 35 days.
It will be considered abnormal if it takes place
– Outside the normal menstruation period
– When one is pregnant
– After menopause
– Menstrual flow is heavier or lighter than normal
Common Causes of Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding:
If one’s hormone production is out of balance, it causes disruption to normal ovulation (monthly discharge of an egg) cycle, which is one of the causes of abnormal vaginal bleeding.
2. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
Infection or inflammation of the female reproductive organs namely, uterus, ovaries or fallopian tubes; as a result of Sexually Transmitted Disease, can lead to abnormal bleeding. The problem occurs when the bacterial infection spreads from vagina to these parts of the reproductive system. More importantly, inflammation of these areas can also trigger vaginal bleeding particularly after sexual intercourse.
3. Intrauterine Device (IUD)
The use of Intrauterine Device (a birth control tool that is inserted into the uterus to prevent future pregnancy) can also cause vaginal bleeding like spotting (light bleeding between periods) or heavy bleeding
Any medicine for hormones that contains Estrogen or Progesterone (e.g.: certain birth control pills) may lead to hormonal imbalance and trigger abnormal bleeding, if taken irregularly or indiscriminately
5. Early Pregnancy
Another important cause of abnormal bleeding among women of reproductive age group is – Pregnancy. Any abnormal pregnancy or early pregnancy with certain defects, can lead to abnormal bleeding even though one may not be yet aware of the pregnancy. Usually, it is the first condition to be investigated in a woman with abnormal uterine bleeding, during reproductive age.
Apart from these common causes of abnormal vaginal bleeding, it can also happen due to:
6. Thyroid Disorders
Changes in menstrual cycle as a result of hormonal imbalance due to an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism) or an overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism) can lead to irregular bleeding patterns.
7. Uterine fibroids
Abnormal growth in the uterus or on its surface can lead to unexpected vaginal bleeding (longer or heavier periods and bleeding between periods).
8. Cancer in the reproductive organs
Cancer in uterus, ovaries, vagina or cervix is also known to be a cause for an uncommon and abnormal vaginal bleeding. The blood loss can take place after sexual intercourse or between one menstrual cycle and the next.
The Author, Dr. Smita Vats is practising as a Consultant Gynaecologist and Laparoscopic Surgeon in Gurgaon.She is one of the Best Gynaecologist in Gurgaon and a visiting consultant at various esteemed Hospitals in Gurgaon including Artemis Hospital, Cloud nine Hospital, Paras Hospital & GNH Hospital Gurgaon.